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Constitution of Jammu & Kashmir is the legal document which establishes the framework of government at state level in Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir. The present constitution was adopted on 17 November 1956, and came into effect on January 26, 1957. As of 2002, 29 amendments have been affected to the Constitution.
Constitution of India grants special status to Jammu and Kashmir among Indian states, and it is the only state in India to have a separate constitution. Article 370 of the Constitution of India states that Parliament of India and the Union Government jurisdiction extends over limited matters with respect to State of Jammu & Kashmir, and in all other matters not specifically vested in Federal governments, actions have to be supported by state legislature.
Also, unlike other states, residual powers are vested in state government. Because of these constitutional provisions, the State of Jammu & Kashmir enjoys autonomy not enjoyed by other states. Among notable and visible differences with other states, till 1965, the head of state in Jammu & Kashmir was styled Sadr-e-Riyasat, whereas in other state, the title was Governor, and head of government was styled Prime Minister in place of Chief Minister in other states.
Historical aspect
India and Pakistan gained their independence from the United Kingdom on midnight of 15 August 1947 IST. Jammu & Kashmir, then a princely state under suzerainty of British Monarch, chose to remain neutral not joining any dominion at the time of independence. A Muslim majority state ruled by Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh (then the ruler of the state), government of the state signed a standstill agreement with Pakistan. However, on 6 October 1947, Pakistani Muslim tribes, supported by the government of Pakistan, attacked Jammu & Kashmir on the behest of Pakistan to achieve forcible accession to Pakistan. Maharaja Hari Singh requested assistance from India, and when India requested an Instrument of Accession to India, Maharaja signed it so that India could help in defense.
The Instrument of Accession (IoA) gave only limited powers to the Government of India, only about the three subject matters of Foreign affairs, Defence and Communications. It was similar to several hundred others IoA signed between the Government of India and other princely states. Whereas the other states later signed merger agreements, therefore dissolving their states to merge into the Dominion of India, granting sovereignty over them to the Dominion Government, the matter of Jammu & Kashmir was complicated by the ongoing war with Pakistan, and a binding United Nations Security Council resolution. It was in the pursuance of those commitments that Article 370 was incorporated in the Constitution. The Constitution of Jammu & Kashmir, which Maharaja (later Sadr-e-Riyasat) Dr. Karan Singh signed into law in 1957, is still in force.

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